Stata FAQ
How does one do regression when the dependent variable is a proportion?

This FAQ is an elaboration of a FAQ by Allen McDowell of StataCorp. and Nicholas J. Cox of Durham University.  Please see  www.stata.com/support/faqs/stat/logit.html for the original.

Proportion data has values that fall between zero and one. Naturally, it would be nice to have the predicted values also fall between zero and one. One way to accomplish this is to use a generalized linear model (glm) with a logit link and the binomial family. We will include the robust option in the glm model to obtain robust standard errors which will be particularly useful if we have misspecified the distribution family.

We will demonstrate this using a dataset in which the dependent variable, meals, is the proportion of students receiving free or reduced priced meals at school.

use http://www.ats.ucla.edu/stat/stata/faq/proportion, clear
	
/* kernel density distribution of meals */	
kdensity meals
	
glm meals yr_rnd parented api99, link(logit) family(binomial) robust nolog 
 
note: meals has non-integer values

Generalized linear models                          No. of obs      =      4257
Optimization     : ML                              Residual df     =      4253
                                                   Scale parameter =         1
Deviance         =  395.8141242                    (1/df) Deviance =   .093067
Pearson          =  374.7025759                    (1/df) Pearson  =  .0881031

Variance function: V(u) = u*(1-u/1)                [Binomial]
Link function    : g(u) = ln(u/(1-u))              [Logit]

                                                   AIC             =  .7220973
Log pseudolikelihood = -1532.984106                BIC             = -35143.61

------------------------------------------------------------------------------
             |               Robust
       meals |      Coef.   Std. Err.      z    P>|z|     [95% Conf. Interval]
-------------+----------------------------------------------------------------
      yr_rnd |   .0482527   .0321714     1.50   0.134    -.0148021    .1113074
    parented |  -.7662598   .0390715   -19.61   0.000    -.8428386   -.6896811
       api99 |  -.0073046   .0002156   -33.89   0.000    -.0077271   -.0068821
       _cons |    6.75343   .0896767    75.31   0.000     6.577667    6.929193
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Next, we will compute predicted scores from the model and transform them back so that they are scaled the same way as the original proportions.
predict premeals1
(option mu assumed; predicted mean meals)
(164 missing values generated)

summarize meals premeals1 if e(sample)

    Variable |       Obs        Mean    Std. Dev.       Min        Max
-------------+--------------------------------------------------------
       meals |      4257    .5165962    .3100389          0          1
   premeals1 |      4257    .5165962    .2849672   .0220988   .9770855
As a contrast, let's run the same analysis without the transformation. We will then graph the original dependent variable and the two predicted variables against api99.
regress meals yr_rnd parented api99

      Source |       SS       df       MS              Number of obs =    4257
-------------+------------------------------           F(  3,  4253) = 6752.22
       Model |  338.097096     3  112.699032           Prob > F      =  0.0000
    Residual |   70.985399  4253  .016690665           R-squared     =  0.8265
-------------+------------------------------           Adj R-squared =  0.8264
       Total |  409.082495  4256  .096119007           Root MSE      =  .12919

------------------------------------------------------------------------------
       meals |      Coef.   Std. Err.      t    P>|t|     [95% Conf. Interval]
-------------+----------------------------------------------------------------
      yr_rnd |   .0024454   .0054678     0.45   0.655    -.0082742     .013165
    parented |  -.1298907   .0048289   -26.90   0.000    -.1393579   -.1204234
       api99 |  -.0014118   .0000269   -52.40   0.000    -.0014646   -.0013589
       _cons |   1.766162   .0134423   131.39   0.000     1.739808    1.792516
------------------------------------------------------------------------------

predict preols

/* figure 1: proportion dependent variable */
graph twoway scatter meals api99, yline(0 1) msym(oh)



/* figure 2: predicted values from model with logit transformation */
graph twoway scatter premeals1 api99, yline(0 1) msym(oh)



/* figure 3: predicted values from model without transformation */
graph twoway scatter preols api99, yline(0 1) msym(oh)

Note that the values from figures 1 and 2 fall within the range of zero to one while those in figure 3 the values go beyond those bounds. Let's finish by looking a the correlations of the predicted values with the dependent variable, meals.
corr meals premeals1 preols
(obs=4257)

             |    meals premea~1   preols
-------------+---------------------------
       meals |   1.0000
   premeals1 |   0.9152   1.0000
      preols |   0.9091   0.9891   1.0000
Note that the correlation between meals and premeals1 is slightly higher than for meals and preols.

Predicting specific values

Now, let's say that you want predicted proportions for some specific combinations of your predictor variables. Specifically, for 500, 600 and 700 for api99, for 1 and 2 for yr_rnd, and for parentrd of 2.5. You would append the following six observations to your dataset with an n of 4421.
count
4421

set obs 4427
obs was 4421, now 4427

replace api99 = 500 in 4422
replace api99 = 600 in 4423
replace api99 = 700 in 4424
replace api99 = 500 in 4425
replace api99 = 600 in 4426
replace api99 = 700 in 4427

replace yr_rnd = 1 in 4422/4424
replace yr_rnd = 2 in 4425/4427

replace parented = 2.5 in 4422/4427

list api99 yr_rnd parented in -6/l, separator(3)

      +---------------------------+
      | api99   yr_rnd   parented |
      |---------------------------|
4422. |   500       No        2.5 |
4423. |   600       No        2.5 |
4424. |   700       No        2.5 |
      |---------------------------|
4425. |   500      Yes        2.5 |
4426. |   600      Yes        2.5 |
4427. |   700      Yes        2.5 |
      +---------------------------+
Rerun your model for the 'real' observations (note the in 1/4421), predict for all observations, and display your results.
glm meals yr_rnd parented api99 in 1/4421, link(logit) family(binomial) robust nolog

Generalized linear models                          No. of obs      =      4257
Optimization     : ML                              Residual df     =      4253
                                                   Scale parameter =         1
Deviance         =  395.8141242                    (1/df) Deviance =   .093067
Pearson          =  374.7025759                    (1/df) Pearson  =  .0881031

Variance function: V(u) = u*(1-u/1)                [Binomial]
Link function    : g(u) = ln(u/(1-u))              [Logit]

                                                   AIC             =  .7220973
Log pseudolikelihood = -1532.984106                BIC             = -35143.61

------------------------------------------------------------------------------
             |               Robust
       meals |      Coef.   Std. Err.      z    P>|z|     [95% Conf. Interval]
-------------+----------------------------------------------------------------
      yr_rnd |   .0482527   .0321714     1.50   0.134    -.0148021    .1113074
    parented |  -.7662598   .0390715   -19.61   0.000    -.8428386   -.6896811
       api99 |  -.0073046   .0002156   -33.89   0.000    -.0077271   -.0068821
       _cons |    6.75343   .0896767    75.31   0.000     6.577667    6.929193
------------------------------------------------------------------------------

predict premeals
(option mu assumed; predicted mean meals)
(164 missing values generated)

list api99 yr_rnd parented premeals in -6/l, separator(3)

      +--------------------------------------+
      | api99   yr_rnd   parented   premeals |
      |--------------------------------------|
4422. |   500       No        2.5    .774471 |
4423. |   600       No        2.5   .6232278 |
4424. |   700       No        2.5   .4434458 |
      |--------------------------------------|
4425. |   500      Yes        2.5   .7827873 |
4426. |   600      Yes        2.5   .6344891 |
4427. |   700      Yes        2.5   .4553849 |
      +--------------------------------------+

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